316(b) Services - Southwick Associates
Fish and Wildlife Economics and Statistics
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316(b) Services

Southwick Associates, Inc. specializes in natural resource & environmental economics.  Our staff is comprised of economics and statistics professionals throughout theU.S. who have in-depth experience measuring the values, benefits and revenues derived from fish, wildlife, and their related uses.  We have the experience and contacts needed to effectively conduct 316(b)-related socioeconomic analyses for utilities.
Our Team Specialties Related to 316(b) Include:

  • Quantifying use & non-use values of fisheries, wildlife and natural resources;
  • Identifying how proposed water intake technologies may impact water-related activities (fishing, wildlife viewing, hunting, swimming, skiing, and more); plus
  • When needed, providing direct, positive contacts with fisheries and wildlife agencies.

Previous Cost-Benefit Projects: most of our work focuses on the benefit side of cost-benefit research. Our research is typically used by clients to balance the costs of proposed projects, whether those costs are technological, social or regulatory. Examples of our team’s public experience applicable to 316(b) & cost-benefit research include (private research for utilities is not shared):

Allen, Thomas; Dr. John Bergstrom and Rob Southwick. Effects of Increasing Duration of Summer Pool and Level of Winter Pool on Recreation Use and Selected Economic Indicators at Lake Martin, Alabama. Alabama Power Company. October, 2010.

Whitehead, John; Peter A. Groothuis, Rob Southwick and Dr. Pat Foster-Turley.  April, 2006. Economic Values of Saginaw Bay Coastal Marshes with a Focus on Recreational Values. Prepared for Ducks Unlimited.

Whitehead, John C., and Timothy C. Haab, “Southeast Marine Recreational Fishery Statistical Survey: Distance and Catch Based Choice Sets,” Marine Resource Economics, 14, 283-298 1999.  This paper estimated use values based on TCM methods. This paper also used the same NMFS recreation data referenced in the recent 316(b) NODA. Approximate cost: $10,000.

Whitehead, John C., Timothy C. Haab, andJu-Chin Huang, “Part-Whole Bias in Contingent Valuation: Will Scope Effects Be Detected with Inexpensive Survey Methods?” Southern Economic Journal, 65, 160-168, 1998. This paper estimated use and nonuse values with the CVM with an eye on minimizing research costs. Approximate cost: $8,000.

Key Staff Bios:

Rob Southwick received his economics education from the University of Florida, School of Business in 1988.  From there, he worked as an economist for the Sport Fishing Institute in Washington, D.C.  In 1990, he left to form his own research firm, Southwick Associates Inc., specializing in the economics related to fish, wildlife, outdoor recreation and natural resources.  Current clients include nearly half of all state fish and wildlife agencies, all major sport fishing and hunting trade associations, sportsmen’s organizations and private companies. Rob is based in Amelia Island, Florida, and is supported by experienced staff and research associates all over the country. With more than 100 completed projects relating to the economics and marketing of fish and wildlife, Rob Southwick has a unique perspective on the business and recreational aspects of fish and wildlife.

Dr. John Whitehead is an associate researcher with Southwick Associates, Inc. and is an Associate Professor of Economics at University of North Carolina at Wilmington. John received his Ph.D. from the University of Kentucky in 1990. Throughout his career, John’s research has concentrated on valuation of environmental and natural resources, natural hazard mitigation, benefit-cost analysis and applied microeconomics. The EPA’s 316(b) NODA was based in part on John’s previous marine fisheries research. John has worked under grants for many agencies including the U.S. Department of Interior, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency, North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, Research Triangle Institute, and more.  Currently, John is currently the elected President of the American Fisheries Society’s Socioeconomics Section.

Rate Schedule:

  • Senior Research Associates (individuals listed above): $150 per hour.
  • Technician/Research Analyst: $75 per hour.
  • Administrative Support: $55 per hour.
  • Travel & incidental research costs billed as additional expenses.
  • All projects and maximum costs are pre-negotiated before work begins.